8 The Origin of the Harvard Map Collection
12 Ebeling's Library, Israel Thorndike, and the
16 Annotating the Landscape
23 The Harvard Map Collection and the Future
69 Scholars and Staff
76 Fellow Travelers
99 Curators and Staff
101 Institutional Changes
111 Maps and Wars
120 Data and GIS
"Widener Map Room," c. 1950. Harvard University Archives UAV 605 Box 84 (No. AS 404).
As the twelfth (ish, maybe) Head of the Harvard Map Collection, and having worked in the Map
Collection for one-tenth of its existence; if is my great pleasure on behalf of the Harvard Library to
immortalize our bicentennial celebration in this volume.
The Map Collection has been through its ups and downs, as one would expect in two centuries at
any institution. At times it has thrived. At times it merely endured. That it continues to exist as a
home to all things geographic and geospatial is due to the efforts of our generous donors, our
devoted researchers, faculty and students, our loyal friends, and the amazing staff, past and present,
all of whom value not only the history and artistry of the maps, but also the stories they tell. Stories
of who owned the maps, of why they were used, the stories the mapmaker tells through his creation.
We, all together, value thinking about where we are, and about where, historically, people thought
they were physically, politically, demographically.
By using and supporting and talking about maps and spatial thinking in the nineteenth century, we
are laying the foundations for cartography, geography, and digital scholarship in the twenty-first.
Head, Geospatial Resources
The exhibition itself was truly a team effort, with every single person who works in the Map
Collection applying their expertise. We also extend our thanks to University Archives, Houghton
Library, Schlesinger Library, Harvard and Slavery Project, Library Technical Services, the Weissman
Preservation Center, Library Imaging Services, and Library Operations.
101. Joshua Fry and Peter Jefferson, "A Map of the Most Inhabited Part of Virginia," 1755.
HARVARD MAP COLLECTION: 1818-2018
34. Robert Sayer and John Bennett, "A new map of the whole continent of America," 1777.
Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818.
The Origin of the
Harvard Map Collection
Lena Denis, Cartographic Assistant,
Harvard Map Collection
The Harvard Map Collection began two hundred
years ago when Harvard accepted the gift of the
library of the geographer, librarian, and historian
Christoph Ebeling. Ebeling owned perhaps the
best private library of books on North America
and his map collection totaled some 10,000 sheets
(about 5,000 maps). With the arrival of this
collection. Harvard's library went from having
no real map collection to having the best in the
nation. In June 1818, Harvard suddenly had a
virtually unrivalled map collection that had been
cobbled together 3,600 miles away for half a
century, by multiple individuals with varying
motivations, with only a slight connection to
Harvard, and with little intention of the collection
even coming to the US.
The core of what became the Harvard Map
Collection's original gift began in documents that
Georg Friedrich Brandes gathered as a
governmental official. After studying law at
Gottingen and Leiden and befriending
influential noble families, Brandes was appointed
to the Privy Council of Hanover in 1746, where
he soon worked on the administration of the
Liineburg saltworks. Ten years later, at the start
of the Seven Years' War, Brandes often left
Hanover to oversee the surveying of the
Westphalian provinces. 1 Several of the maps in
Harvard's collection, therefore, show Liineburg
and the surrounding area including the saltworks
while others detail the Westphalian region as part
of this surveying project.
With these official documents as a foundation,
Brandes further developed his library by
following the intellectual movements and
discoveries of his day. Brandes' wider, bookish
interests served him well in his second career. In
1769, he was given administrative control of the
University of Gottingen by its founder and
reigning curator, Hanover's Prime Minister
Gerlach Adolph von Miinchhausen. Brandes,
following Miinchhausen's precedent, used his
influence and power as a state actor to support
the university and let its students and instructors
conduct research with little censorship. 2
Back at Gottingen, Brandes befriended and
learned from the professor and librarian
Christian Gottlob Heyne. Under Heyne's
influence, Brandes' library became more than a
bureaucrat's messy desk. From the beginning of
their acquaintance, Heyne enormously
influenced Brandes' collecting practices,
especially by connecting him to merchants across
Europe to help him build an immense library
not only for himself but also for the university. 3
Through his university connections, Brandes
befriended and worked with a variety of
Enlightenment intellectuals. In a milieu that
mixed professional and personal connections, the
fluidity of Brandes' Enlightenment circles was a
necessary feature for the exchange of
educational resources. As a result of this new
network of colleagues, Brandes' books were no
longer just an official's sources; they became an
Enlightenment gentleman's library. The maps he
left behind, now at Harvard, thus combine his
earlier work—strategic representations of
eighteenth-century German lands for war and
taxes—with a world-class collection of maps and
atlases that were (and still are) the envy of
academics and antiquarians everywhere.
1 Gabriele Crusius, Aufklarung und Bibliophilie: Der Hannoveraner Sammler Georg Friedrich Brandes und seine Bibliothek
(Heidelberg: Universitatsverlag Winter, 2008), 36-37.
2 Ernst Bohme, "History of Ilie tfniWtsiiy - Alt Overview - Georg-Augist-Universitat Gottingen," Georg-August-
Universitdt Gottingen. https://www.uni-goettingen.de/en/history+of+the+university+%E2%80%93+an+overview/90607.html
(accessed 18 July 2018).
3 CruSiMSj Aufklarung und Bibliophilie, 12-13.
The collection did not cease growing when
Brandes died but found added life in a new
contributor. Like Brandes, Christoph Ebeling
began collecting in earnest at Gottingen. Ebeling
graduated in 1767 having studied geography,
history, languages, and literature. In particular,
Ebeling latched onto the methods and
scholarship of Gottfried Achenwall. AchenwalTs
scholarship instilled Ebeling with the then¬
revolutionary notion that he must study history,
geography, and government using the "objective
statistical evaluation of primary data." 4
Internalizing this methodology, Ebeling,
throughout his life wrote and revised historical
and geographical texts according to the best
primary sources he could obtain. To do this
work, of course, Ebeling needed to collect even
beyond that required of a regular university
student of his time. Universities expected
students of means to collect their own personal
study libraries because even public libraries were
only open at the discretion of the librarian. 5
Even before news of the American Revolution
made its way to Europe, Ebeling had been
teaching the geography of North America with
fascination. In 1769, the same year that Brandes
became director of Gottingen's university,
Ebeling had accepted a post at the Hamburg
Handlungsakademie, the city's recently founded
business school, and became a co-director within
the year. The prosperity brought by free trade
was a huge part of Ebeling's teaching as well
as his day-to-day life since his students were
required to work at the stock exchange in the
evenings. 6 Thus, when the rumblings of American
independence started gaining notice in 1770,
Ebeling thought it was extremely important to
report what was happening to his German peers.
Over the next thirty years, Ebeling founded and
edited journals for American news in German,
mainly the Amerikanische Bibliothek and the
Amerikanisches Magazin. In addition to these
periodicals, Ebeling published his Erdbeschreibung
und Geschichte von Amerika (cat. 4)—a massive
history and geography of the United States.
Publishing the first volume in 1793 and the last
just before his death in 1817, Ebeling had planned
this set to cover the entire United States but only
finished 7 volumes. 7
For both these periodicals and his monographs,
Ebeling needed sources. Ebeling translated acts
of the newly formed US legislature, analyzed
fiscal policy, and performed other research with
exacting detail. As a scholar, teacher, and
librarian in Hamburg, Ebeling was well
situated to cultivate foreign informants. Anyone
who wanted to get anything in or out of Europe
would often need to go through Hamburg
anyway. 8 With some persuasive letter writing,
Ebeling managed to get incredible access to
American sources. A veritable who's who of
American intellectuals would become his
scholarly pen pals—including Isaiah Thomas,
William Bentley (cat. 47), Jeremy Belknap,
Jedidiah Morse (cat. 43M4), and Ezra Stiles (cat.
46). Ebeling combined this letter-writing
campaign with the blend of public and private
collecting so common to Gottingen. In a 1796
letter to Bentley, for instance, Ebeling describes
buying copies for Gottingen and himself
simultaneously. 9 Because of both the quality of
his publications and his near-constant contact,
Ebeling had a great reputation as a scholar and a
colleague among New England intellectuals.
4 Gordon M. Stewart, "Christoph Daniel Ebeling: America's Friend in Eighteenth Century Germany." Monatshefte 68, no. 2
5 Paul G. Hoftijzer, "The Library of Johannes De Laet (1581-1649)." Lias 25, no. 2 (1998): 201-216.
6 Gordon McNett Stewart, The Literary Contributions of Christoph Daniel Ebeling (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1978), 24, 27; Stewart,
"Christoph Daniel Ebeling" 155-156.
7 Eugene Edgar Doll, American Histony as Interpreted by German Historians from 1770 to 1S15 (Philadelphia: The American
Philosophical Society, 1949), 474.
8 Ulrich Pfister, "Great Divergence, Consumer Revolution and the Reorganization of Textile Markets: Evidence from
Hamburg's Import Trade, Eighteenth ( cntury " Economic History Working Papers 266 (2017): 3-10. http://www.lse.ac.uk/
Economic-History/Assets/Documents/WorkingPapers/Economic-History/2017/WP266.pdf. (accessed 18 July 2018)
9 William Coolidge Lane, Letters of Christoph Daniel Ebeling (Worcester, MA: The American Antiquarian Society, 1926),
35. John Mitchell, "A map of the British and French dominions in North America," 1755.
Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818.
Israel Thorndike, and
the Slave Trade
David Weimer, Librarian for Cartographic Collections
and Learning, Harvard Map Collection
Christoph Daniel Ebeling never intended his
library to come to the United States. Ebeling's
maps and his books on the Americas—his
Bibliotheca Americana (cat. 42) —only came to the
United States because of the sustained efforts
of several Harvard professors, alumni, and one
donor. This chain of events began slowly with
Ebeling's long cultivation of correspondents in
the US, but the main catalyst was the well-timed
visit to Ebeling's home in Hamburg by three
young men affiliated with Harvard.
Through his correspondence with Americans and
his published books and magazines, Ebeling had
developed a good and friendly reputation in the
United States, particularly among New England
intellectuals. US newspapers mentioned
Ebeling's new publications favorably. 1 Isaiah
Thomas, convinced by his own brief written
relationship with Ebeling and William Bentley's
recommendation, supported Ebeling's election as
a member of the American Antiquarian Society
early after it was founded in 1812.
This reputation led the three young Harvard
scholars at Gottingen—Joseph Cogswell, Edward
Everett, and Augustus Thorndike—to visit
Hamburg at the end of May 1817. Cogswell made
the trip as a tutor for Thorndike, who was
making his way through Europe on a Grand
Tour. They met up with Everett in Gottingen
where Everett, the most accomplished of the trio,
had recently finished an additional graduate
degree. During his studies at Gottingen, Everett
regularly communicated with the president of
Harvard, John Kirkland, about his professors, his
plans for changes at Harvard, and his daily life.
At Gottingen, Everett was well aware of Ebeling,
who, through Bentley, had provided letters of
introduction to a few professors. Moreover,
Everett had even sent Ebeling an inscribed copy
of his Defence of Christianity (1814) two years
earlier in October 1815. 2
As they were all leaving Gottingen to continue on
to other parts of Europe, they travelled together
to Hamburg in late May 1817. In Hamburg, they
met with business men, including Joseph
Pitcairn, who had been the US consul to
Hamburg until 1802, and Richard Parish, as well
as scholggS, Cogswell wrote to John Farrar of his
visits to two eminent botanists in the city as
Cogswell prepared for a potential professorship
in botany and mineralogy. 3 And, of course, they
visited Christoph Ebeling. After visiting with
Tbeling. his 27 May 1817 letter to Kirkland was
particularly forceful. Everett called Ebeling's
collection "a more complete list of American
materials than are contained in any other
collection in America or Europe." With news
from Cogswell that the university in Berlin
wanted Ebeling's library, Everett demanded
quick action: "Ask the legislature for a grant, beg,
borrow, steal the money, if need be; but the books
we must have." Everett even insisted that he
would write his brother, then a diplomat living
in Europe, to "see if Congress cannot be induced
to purchase it" 4 —an alternate possibility I don't
have time to go into here. For Everett, at least, the
question was not whether Ebeling's collection
belonged in the US but who would bring it there.
1 See, for instance, "Ebeling's American Geography," The National Advocate (25 September 1816), 2.
1 This copy is now at the Massachusetts Historical Society with many of Edward Everett's papers.
3 Cogswell to John Farrar, 11 June 1817. Harvard College Papers, 1st series, 1636-1825, 1831. UAI 5.100, 8.50. Harvard
4 Edward I vr reft;,ho jphnl Iv an e :n Kirkland, 27 May 1817. Edward Ever®|ftterbook and journal [photocopies], 1815-
1842, Ms. N-2226, 214. Massachusetts Historical Society.
Everett'and letter activated these two
potential paths to acquisition simultaneously—
Qjte with the federal government and one with
Harvard. Everett's brother has passed along the
news of the library to John Quincy Adams, who
was willing to purchase it himself believing that
the government would then purchase it from him
for the Library of Congress. 5 At the same time,
Everett and Kirkland approached potential
donors with the idea of acquiring Ebeling's
library—including, for instance, Thomas
Perkins—before they found the most obvious
candidate. 6 Israel Thorndike, the father of the
same Augustus Thorndike who had visited
Ebeling with Everett, was one of the richest men
in the US. Between his son's enthusiasm and
Kirkland passing along Everett's effusive letter,
Thorndike had agreed to acquire the library at
any cost. 7 With two competing bids for Ebeling's
Thorndike, Everett decided he was bound to
Thorndike, who set no limit compared to Adams'
$6,000 ceiling. This decision came as a relief to
Adams, who had found that President James
Monroe was much less enthusiastic about the
purchase than he. 8 With the help of Richard
Parish and Joseph Pitcairn, therefore, Cogswell
and Everett managed the negotiations and
Thorndike eventually spent a total of $6,285—or
22,000 Marc Banco (cat. 7). 9
The full cost of this collection, however, exceeded
the currency that Israel Thorndike spent because
of Thorndike's involvement in the slave trade.
Although Thorndike did not come from
money, he had, by the beginning of the
nineteenth century, established himself as one
of the richest US citizens through an extensive
trading business. Like some other successful New
England merchants, Thorndike profited as a
middle-man between the ports of warring
European nations. In doing so, Thorndike totally
immersed his trade in the Caribbean slave
system. 10 He sold fish to islands throughout the
Caribbean and brought box upon box of
sugar from Havana to Hamburg, Amsterdam,
and Bremen. On the way, he also profited from
moving enslaved Africans between Caribbean
islands (cat. 36-39). In 1791, for instance,
Thorndike and his partner Moses Brown—not
the famous Rhode Island merchant, but another
Beverly native—instructed Thorndike's cousin on
the Schooner Two Friends to "purchase from five
to fourteen good negroes " in Cap Frangais (now
Cap Haitian) and sell them in Havana where,
depending on their profitability, he should "vest
in sugar, cotton, or hides." 11 On this ship, by
27 April 1792, Nicholas Thorndike had sold 10
slaves for 236 dollars each and purchased 40
boxes of sugar, 2,217 barrels of Molasses, 20 jars
of honey, 1 ton of logwood, and 50 dryed hides, 12
5 Carl Ostrowski, Books, Maps, and Politics: A Cultural History of the Library of Congress, 17S3-1S61 (Amherst: University of
Massachusetts Press, 2004), 87.
6 John Kirkland to Edward Everett, 12 September 18117, Pap* of Edward Everett, 1807-1864, UAI 15.884, Box 2. Harvard
University Archives: Edward Everett to Rev. S. C. TlatAer at Moulins, Paris, 9 November 1817. Edward Everett letterbook
and journal [photocopies], 1815-1842, Ms. N-2226, 235. Massachusetts Historical Society.
7 Edward Everett to John Thornton Kirkland, 25 January 1818. Edward Everett letterbook and journal [photocopies],
1815-1842, Ms. N-2226, 251-2. Massachusetts Historical Society.
8 Ostrowski, Books, Maps, and Politics, 87; Edward Everett to A. H. Everett, Rome, 16 November 1818. Edward Everett letter
book, 1818-1819. Houghton f MS Am 1742, 14. Houghton Library: John Quincy Adams, Worthington Chauncey Ford, and
Worthington Chauncey Ford. Writings of John Quincy Adams. Volume 6. (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1913), 227,
9 Pitcairn, Blffldi.e'S& co to Israel Thorndike, 11 August 1818. Harvard University Archives UAIII 50.28.18.
10 For the two thorough accounts of Thorndike's life, see John Douglas Forbes, Israel Thorndike. Federalist Financier (New
York: Published for the Beverly Histarfeal Society by Exposition Press, 1953); Timothy H. Kistner, Federalist Tycoon: The
Life and Times of Israel Thorndike (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2015).
11 Orders to Capt. Nicholas Thorndike signed by Israel Thorndike and Moses Brown, 4 October 1791. Doc 18460. Beverly
18 Account of BrownSM Thorndike with N. Thorndike, 27 April 1792. Doc 18488. Beverly Historical Society. The voyages
appear with these two ports in Slam Trade to Havana, Cuba, 1790-1820, compiled by Herbert S. Klein, https://www.disc.
wisc.edu/archive/slave/slave09_index.html (accessed 19 July 2018). Distributed by the University of Wisconsin-Madison
with funding from the National Institutes of Health. Madison, WI, 2018.
Thorndike continued his trade in the Caribbean
into the nineteenth century while broadening
out into the Pacific—sending ships to Calcutta,
Canton, and Batavia for spices and textiles (cat.
When Thorndike authorized Cogswell and
Everett to purchase Ebeling's books and maps in
his name, the books and maps became like
anything else in Thorndike's ledgers.
"Twenty-three boxes containing maps, charts,
manuscripts, pamphlets, newspapers, and
books" (cat. 12) mean the same kind of thing in
this accounting as ten slaves on the Two Friends,
130 boxes of Cuban sugar on the Betsy, 13 or 16
hogshead of fish on the Three Brothers. 11
Therefore, this history of the Harvard Map
Collection exists within a much broader story of
the global slave economy and how it fueled the
rise of independent wealth in the Lnitod States.
In turn, we cannot calculate the cost of the
original gift solely in terms of exchanged
currencies. An honest accounting requires that
we also consider the lives of those people that
Thorndike and others traded as if they were no
different than other commodities. Only by
reckoning with this past can the Map Collection
build into its third century.
13 Shipping receipt, 19 September 1 799. Israel Thorndike Business records, 1778-1899, Box 2 Folder 3. Baker Business
Library, Harvard Library.
14 Invoice, 18 November 1800. Israel Thorndike Business records, 1778-1899, Box 3 Folder 2. Baker BusinhgkXibrary,
32. Andres Bure, "Regnorum Sueciae, Daniae et Norvegiae," c. 1710. Hohenzollern Collection.
These letters might refer to the currencies (.iroten.
Florin (Gulden), and Schilling, respectively.
Given the frequency with which this three-
number annotation appears and its exclusive
attachment to toponyms, we can infer that the
monetary denominations indicate local property
values or tax burdens. This region sits right at
Bavaria's border with Wiirttemberg, sO precise
accounting of land values was particularly urgent
in a period as attentive to claims of sovereignty as
the post-Napoleonic era. Unfortunately, it is not
possible at this point to determine when these
values were determined more precisely than the
period between the 1820s and 1860s.
Von Maurer seems to have used this map not just
for governmental purposes but also for his
scholarly research. Public service was not von
Maurer's sole vocation, for he was awarded the
top prize in 1824 by the Akademie der
Wissenschaft zu Munchen for his pioneering work
on medieval trials ("Die Geschichte deS
altgerman. und namentlich altbayer.
offentlichmiindlichen Verfahren"). He published
his magnum opus. Introduction to the History of
Border, Q00I, Village, and City Formation and Public
Authority (Einleitung zur Geschichte der Mark-,
Hof-, Dorf- und Stadti’erfassung und der offentlichen
ffemfff, in 1854. Several volumes followed
through the 1860s on more specific themes in the
German development of land rights and legal
Von Maurer attends to such developments in this
region in the overwhelming majority of
inscriptions in the body of the map that begin
with a date between 1100 and 1400 and document
an event in the named locale. From the small
proportion of annotations that can be deciphered
and translated, the overarching theme of these
historical inscriptions seems to be land rights and
The words Gut (possession, estate) and predium
[praedium] (farm, estate) appear quite regularly.
For example, an isolated annotation at the very
bottom of the map references the knight
Engelhard of Tapfheim's bequest of his estate
at Biihel in 1253. 7 Another series of annotations
places witnesses in certain places, most likely
to indicate the first documentation of a certain
settlement or a noble family's hegemony over the
land. These inscriptions end with the
abbreviation "t." for testis (witness) and can be
found throughout the map. For instance, "1272
Vlricus de / CorKingen t." is placed east of
Baldern, and "1248 Gaius de Gnozzesheim /
miles t." is written at the very lop of the map by
With this mix of annotations, the map opens a
window onto multiple layers of time from the
Middle Ages through the middle of the
nineteenth century. Additionally, the materiality
of the map suggests the existence of two separate
manuscript layers. Annotations appear in black,
brown, and red inks to varying degrees, and
some annotations are added in pencil as well.
The black ink registers place names from villages
to rivers to the single point of (relatively) high
altitude, the butte Ipf. There are 554 total
inscriptions in this first manuscript layer
accompanied by 568 iterations of the following
7 Martin Schaidler, Guvnik des ehemaligen Reiclisstiftes Kaisersheim (Kaisheim i: nebst einer Beschreibung der Kirche (Kaisheim:
Beck, 186 7), 20.
Appendix 1: Corrections
3 y. * I *>y/
n i o
A A ✓Z--
General German Intelligence Service, Aerial Reconnaissance Pigeon, c. 1914-1918.
Courtesy of Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-R01996.
The Harvard Map
Collection and tire
Future of Cartography
Dani Brown, Geospatial Data Technical Assistant,
Harvard Map Collection
Here at the Harvard Map Collection we are
concerned with more than just the preservation
and curation of paper maps. We are also home to
an increasingly diverse and ever growing
collection of digital geospatial data, from
georeferenced antiquarian map scans to census
data vector files from India to interactive fantasy
web maps best viewed on our giant touch screen.
The creation, aggregation, and curation of this
increasingly complex assortment of digital
geospatial data is one of the Map Collection's
priorities as it aims to support evolving patron
interest and research.
Digitizing Historic Maps
One of the most basic and most useful ways to
leverage digital cartography and GIS
(geographic information systems) is to simply
create a digital copy of a paper map.
Here at the Harvard Map Collection, we have a
vast number of historic paper maps that contain
invaluable cartographic and historic information.
GIS and digital cartography allow us to extract
this information and transform it into digital data
that can then be utilized by patrons of the
Collection for a truly unlimited assortment of
research projects, geospatial analyses, and
Take a look at the historic map of Asia Minor
below for an example of how historic maps are
transformed into new digital datasets here at the
Let's take a look at some of the ways in which the
Map Collection actually creates new geospatial Butler, Samuel. Atlas of Ancient and Classical
data using GIS and digital cartography. Geography. Richard Clay & Sons, Limited, 1907.
The map above is a scanned copy of a paper map.
As you can see, this map contains useful
information about the political boundaries of
Using a GIS desktop application called ArcMap,
these historic political boundaries were traced
and transformed into vector data, or data that
come in the form of points/lines/polygons with
associated information stored in a table contained
within the vector file.
These vector data can then be used in myriad
ways. For instance, the original paper map was
reproduced with some slight variation to make
the map labels more legible (see below).
Because vector data contain geographic
coordinates, they can also be used by patrons for
more advanced geospatial analyses, such as
measuring the exact distances between the
various Anatolian polities or calculating the
differences in area between Lycia and Cilicia.
All of these different analyses can be performed
using GIS applications such as ArcMap, QGIS,
or Carto, which are available through the Map
New vector datasets are uploaded to the Harvard
Geospatial Library (HGL) for download and use
Where do we go from here? How else does the
Map Collection leverage GIS and digital
cartography to enhance learning, research, and
access to cartographic data?
Enhancing Digital Datasets
One of the most exciting components of digital
data is the ease with which it can be integrated
into and manipulated by web-based applications.
For instance, web-based applications provide
easy and user-friendly medium through which
data can be made interactive, thus enhancing the
user experience and increasing the amount of
information that can be conveyed with one map.
Let's take a look at the maps below for an
example of how the Map Collection has
leveraged web-based cartography.
This is a static map of the European Theater and
the furthest extent of the Third Reich during
WWII, specifically highlighting the varying
sovereignty and allegiances of each region in
Europe. As a choropleth map this image uses
color-coded categories to effectively convey this
information to its audience.
What if we were to turn this map into an
interactive web-based map, thus allowing the
user to more dynamically interact with the map
and its information?
In order to create the web-map below, a vector
file of modern country boundaries was modified
until it matched the static European Theater map
above. (A few changes were made to the
categories used in the original map for
Remember the associated tabular data stored
within the vector file mentioned earlier? Well that
accessory information can be incredibly useful
when data are displayed in a web map. In this
case, the sovereignty/allegiance information and
regional names from the original static map were
recorded within the vector file so that they could
be displayed interactively for the user.
An attribute table: the tabular data stored within a vector file.
@ - ifi- % ® El
merge3_ne_1 Om_adm i n_0_cou ntries
German allies, co-belligerents, and puppet states
Po ly si
Po ly si
German allies, co-belligerents, and pu ppet states
The result is the map below. Zoom in, zoom out, and explore the European Theater in 1942 and notice
how this experience differs from simply observing a static map containing the same information.
(Interactive map only available online.)
Where To Go From Here?
Looking forward into the future of digital
cartography and GIS, the possibilities are truly
endless. So where do we go from here? What
kinds of information would you like to explore
using web maps or GIS applications or digital
And what about Godzilla...have you ever
wondered what the geographic distribution of
his and his nemeses' wrath and terror looks like?
The map below was made by taking the list of
movies and locations compiled in a VH1 article,
entering the data into a spreadsheet, and
uploading it into a GIS application (this time a
desktop application). The resulting vector file
was a set points representing every location
destroyed by Godzilla (or one of his nemeses).
Because the locations were primarily located in
the Northern Hemisphere, we made the
cartographic decision to reproject the vector data
so that the Earth could be viewed as though
looking down on it from the North Pole, allowing
the viewer to see all of the destruction points at
What about mapping something fun that speaks
directly to your own interests? GIS and digital
cartography do not have to be limited to
historic datasets and purely academic pursuits.
Have you ever wondered which world cities
are most likely to be destroyed in blockbuster
movies? Or perhaps you would just like a stylish
cartographic representation of Godzilla's global
rampages over the decades...
For Godzilla, we decided to make our final
cartographic representation a static map, not an
interactive web map. It is important to know that
there are advantages and disadvantages to every
type of data and map. In this case, we decided
to highlight the potential for interesting and
eye-catching cartography, not interactivity. This
map can also be printed and viewed without the
internet, unlike web-maps.
Tto put the finishing touches on this Godzilla
map, the reprojected vector data exported out of
the GIS application into Adobe Illustrator so that
more refined, aesthetic cartographic work could
be done, such as adding the skull-and-cross-
bones symbols or inserting the Godzilla
watermark in the background.
From reproductions of ancient Anatolia to Godzilla data source: VH1
interactive web-based representations of the
Third Reich and the Japanese Empire to fun maps
exploring fictional destruction, there are really no
limits to what can be done with GIS and digital
An interactive version of this essay can be found
HARVARD MAP COLLECTION: 1818-2018
Follow the Map
"Map room in Cronkhite Center," Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University.
The Harvard Map Collection unites many bygone libraries—big and small, famous and forgotten.
Ranging from a veteran's single map of Iwo Jima to the one of the eighteenth-century world's largest
private map collections, these donated libraries have given the Harvard Map Collection both its
material and its personality.
"Follow the Map" invites you to trace the networks that made this collection. On the foundation of
its largest gifts, the Map Collection has grown with the surrounding people: faculty and staff have
donated sources; fellow travelers have returned with treasures; curators have envisioned new
possibilities; institutional changes have transformed our purpose; and soldiers have returned from
war with costly innovations in mapping. Each section of the exhibition highlights a selection of the
people and maps involved in these parts of this history.
Follow the map.
You'll be surprised where you end up.
The core of the Harvard Map Collection arrived
on 25 October 1818. Shipped from Hamburg to
Cambridge, the library of Christoph Daniel
Ebeling arrived in 23 boxes. A teacher, scholar,
and librarian, Ebeling had amassed one of the
world's largest collections on the geography and
history of North America.
"These materials for American history must not be
lost to us ... beg, borrow, steal the money, if need be;
but the books we must have ."
Edward Everett to Harvard President
To acquire this library. Harvard needed the help
of the wealthy merchant Israel Thorndike.
Thorndike made his fortune in the Caribbean
trading both commodities and enslaved Africans.
The cost of Ebeling's library, therefore, was not
just the dollars Thorndike spent, but the lives on
whom Thorndike's trade preyed. Throughout its
history, the Map Collection has always had this
history of violence in its very structure.
Although started on an American foundation, the
Map Collection's focus has never been narrow.
Indeed, Ebeling's library actually had more maps
of Germany than it did of the US! Other
foundational gifts have further expanded the
collection. In 1903, the Harvard Map Collection
bolstered its German holdings with the
Hohenzollern Collection—orchestrated by the
professor and librarian, Archibald Cary Coolidge.
By accident and by design, these gifts have
provided a pervasive, German influence to the
Even a good foundation is only a beginning.
"Follow the Map" shows how the Map Collection
relied on many people to grow into a dynamic
site for research and learning.
2. Peter Ratke Reier, "Charte von denienigen
sowohl Stadt Hamburgischen," 1759.
Ebeling studied at the University of Gottingen,
south of Hamburg. At Gottingen, Ebeling
developed a network of colleagues and a passion
for history based on primary sources. Although
we don't know precisely how, these Gottingen
connections allowed Ebeling to inherit nearly half
his map collection from the library of a
Hanoverian Privy Councilor named Georg
Friedrich Brandes after Brandes' death in 1792.
These maps of the area around Gottingen in
Hanover would have provided practical
information for Brandes, but perhaps more
sentimental value to Ebeling.
After graduating from Gottingen in 1767, he was
hired in 1769 by the newly formed
Handlungsakademie, or business school, in the
free-trade haven of Hamburg. He worked and
lived there, in the building marked on the map
below, until 1794.
31. F.A. von Lawrence, "Grundriss der Kayseri, freien Reichs und Handels stadt Hamburg," 1791.
Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818.
3. Georg Moritz Lowitz, "Planiglobii terrestris mappa universalis/' in Ebeling Atlas Compendius, 1746.
4. Christoph Ebeling, Die Vereinten Staaten von
Nord-amerika, Volume 5, 1799.
Widener Library, KPD 3881.
As a scholar, Ebeling was always updating and
correcting errors—including his own. Because
the maps in this atlas dated from the
mid-eighteenth century, Ebeling added his own
notes to show recent European expeditions,
including James Cook's to Australia.
Ebeling published the first volume of
Erdbeschreibung und Geschichte von Amerika
(Description and History of America) in 1793, but
only finished seven of 13 planned volumes by his
death in 1817. Ebeling's work was respected if
not always easily read. Ebeling brushed off
criticism of his dry prose in an 1809 letter, "a
Body of Geography is not a book to be read for
amusement, but to be consulted for use." In his
own copy of his book, you can see Ebeling
correcting his own and the printers' errors in pen.
5. James Rennell, "The Hoogly River from Nuddeah to the Sea/' in A Bengal Atlas, 1781.
Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818.
Although Ebeling's own scholarship and
publishing focused on the Americas, he
maintained global interests. This knowledge and
these sources were essential for teaching at the
Handlungsakademie and collecting as the librarian
for the city of Hamburg.
6. Robert Dudley, "Figura 22," in Dell' arcano del
mare, 1646-1647. Ebeling Map Collection.
Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818.
James Rennell's Bengal Atlas showed the British
military campaign in northern India and his
larger efforts to map India comprehensively as
the British were establishing imperial control.
This page shows his intensive marine mapping,
with soundings and detailed labeling of the
offshore features around Kolkata (Calcutta), as
well as a schematic battle view of Oudanulla, the
site of a 1763 siege by the British.
Without a large inheritance, Ebeling had to work
hard to obtain all the materials for his writing
and study. Some treatises, like Sir Robert
Dudley's seventeenth-century maritime
encyclopedia of nautical charts and calculations,
were particularly expensive. Ebeling inscribed in
its opening pages, in Latin, "most precious."
Compiled by Sir Robert Dudley, an English
courtier in Florence, Dell ' arcano del mare
exemplifies the international scientific and
diplomatic networks of a century earlier.
Dudley was an Oxford-educated mathematician
and engineer, who made his career designing
ships and updating astronomical instruments
for aid in navigation. In this treatise, Dudley
included intricate designs like this one, for an
instrument that measures latitude based on the
position of the moon.
On 17 June 1818, Israel Thorndike sent a letter to
Harvard's president, John Thornton Kirkland
officially presenting Ebeling's library "as a mark
of the great esteem I feel for" Harvard. He
enclosed a few documents relating to the
purchase. One letter to Joseph Cogswell explains
that Hamburg and Gottingen's libraries wanted
Ebeling's library and quotes two prices, 900
pounds for the 3,500 books and 600 pounds for
his maps. A letter from Pitcairn, Brodie's & co
shows Thorndike's final fee as $6,285, or 22,000
On 26 June 1818, the President and Fellows of
Harvard College officially accepted the gift. It
was then shipped from Hamburg in August in 23
crates, arriving two and a half months later.
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7. Israel Thorndike, Letter to John T. Kirkland, 17 June 1818.
Harvard University Archives IJAIII 50.28.18.
8. Richard Parish, Letter to Joseph Cogswell,
23 January 1818.
■~tt Harvard University Archives UAIII 50.28.18.
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9. Pitcairn, Brodie's & co. Letter to Israel
Thorndike, 11 August 1818.
Harvard University Archives UAIII 50.28.18.
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10. John Kirkland, Letter to Edward Everett, 11 July 1818.
Harvard University Archives UAI 15.884 Box 2.
As professor of Greek at Harvard, Edward
Everett studied at Gottingen University with an
eye to improving Harvard. He was especially
impressed by the "great inducement to men of
learning" he found in Gottingen's rich library.
Everett immediately wrote to John Kirkland. In
their search for a donor to subsidize the
purchase, they were, of course, aided by
Augustus, the son of the rich Israel Thorndike
who saw Ebeling's library for himself.
In May 1817, Everett went with two other
Harvard graduates—Augustus Thorndike and
his tutor Joseph Cogswell—from Gottingen to
Hamburg. There, he visited Ebeling and saw a
collection Harvard needed.
In this letter, Kirkland tells Everett the donation
is complete. He thanks Everett for the "eloquent
... letter written to me from Hamburgh" that
had persuaded Thorndike to buy and donate the
11. "Nova ducatuum
Bremae et Verdae,"
c. 1750. Ebeling Map
Collection. Gift of Israel
This manuscript map shows the region to the
west of Hamburg. It illustrates how the Elbe and
the Weser rivers connected Hamburg and
Bremen as major ports in northern Europe during
Thorndike requested that Pitcairn, Brodie's & co
send Ebeling's library to Boston on William Faris'
ship, the General Stark. As this receipt shows, they
loaded the library into 23 boxes on 12 August
1818. From Hamburg, they would sail along the
Elbe out to the Atlantic as they made their way to
12. Shipping Slip, 12
August 1818. Harvard
bl.ipped by the gr.ee of God in good Order, and wejl condoned 1 ,^,,^, ^
and by God’s gfte bound for 10 fay
, J T Af/i Z&
23. Thomas Jefferys, A General Topography of North America and the West Indies, 1768.
Gift of Hon. Frederic North, 1830.
For New England merchants like Israel
Thorndike, trading in the Atlantic in the late
eighteenth century was both risky and profitable.
As this three-flap map in Thomas Jefferys' atlas
shows, France, Spain, and England were
constantly jostling for control—in and out of war
throughout these decades.
A merchant's ships could easily get caught in
these hostilities and seized for trading with the
In 1794, for instance, British naval forces
suddenly captured the island of St. Lucia from
French control. The English forces seized
Thorndike's ship the Three Brothers in the harbor
as enemy property. But, with ports shut between
warring nations, Thorndike's ships could make
large profits by moving goods —as long as they
4* Dcfcription "of the Sea Coaft of Italy. ^ Prc/piffs of <h t ,h C Sea Ccafts 0 /Italy. 43
..AKr 1/ - "
24. The English Pilot. Part III, describing ... the whole
Mediterranian, 1747. Gift of Sarah A. Clarke,
Newton, Mass., 1844.
25. The English Pilot. Part V, describing the sea-coast... on the
west coast of Africa, c. 1780. Gift of William B. Brown, 1851.
Israel Thorndike traded goods
throughout the world. His primary
ports in Europe were in the north—
especially Hamburg, Bremen, and
Amsterdam. His shipments to these
ports often included hundreds of
boxes of sugar from Havana—130
boxes on the Betsy in 1797 and 424
on the Hope in 1800—which enslaved
people harvested in Cuba.
Beyond northern Europe, his ships
went through every major port in
Europe. In April 1801, for instance,
John Lovett sailed Thorndike's ship
the Betsy back from Naples. When
these ships returned from Europe,
many completed a circuit around the
Atlantic from New England, to
multiple islands in the Caribbean, to
northern Europe. Thorndike's
captains would have used pilot charts
like these to navigate in
Europe and the coast of Africa.
Beyond the Atlantic trade, other ships moved
between Salem, Europe, and the Indian and
Pacific Oceans. Especially after the mid-1790s,
Thorndike began to trade more in the Pacific. He
sent ships to Calcutta, Canton, and Batavia. From
Calcutta, the Cyrus left Salem with more than
a dozen kegs of silver and arrived in Europe in
1801 with a ship's worth of textiles. From Batavia,
which had grown into a large Dutch trading port,
another ship returned to Salem in 1801 with a
variety of spices, including pepper.
Thorndike translated his wealth and business
contacts into a successful political career. He
served for decades in the Massachusetts
legislature and attended two state constitutional
conventions. One of the wealthiest Americans, he
invested heavily in textile manufacturing in the
1810s and 1820s.
26. Homann Erben, "Der Hollaendisch-Ostindianischen Compagnie weltberiihmte Haupt-Handels
und Niederlags-Stadt Batavia," 1733.
Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818.
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36. Thomas Jefferys, The West-India Atlas, 1 775. Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818.
Israel Thorndike participated both directly and
indirectly in the Caribbean slave trade.
Thorndike participated indirectly by selling the
fish that fed enslaved people and purchasing the
sugar they harvested. He would often buy sugar
in Havana and then ship it directly to European
ports, such as Hamburg.
Thomas Jefferys and many other publishers
designed atlases to aid sailors in the Caribbean as
slave plantations relied on imports for even basic
necessities and on exportation to European and
US markets. Inside these books, Ebeling noted
that he paid 3 guineas for Jefferys' book in 1777
and 1 % guineas for Speer's in 1778.
Thorndike participated directly in the slave trade
by buying and selling enslaved people within the
Caribbean. In a 4 October 1791 letter, for instance,
he instructed Nicholas Thorndike on the
schooner Two Friends to stop in Cap Frangais
(now Cap Ha'itien) in Haiti to "purchase from
five to fourteen good negroes ." By April, this ship
had sold each of these ten enslaved people in
Havana for $236 before purchasing sugar,
molasses, honey, logwood, and dried hides.
With books such as this English Pilot from 1789
and the 1787 French atlas of Haiti, the pilot of the
Two Friends could avoid shoals and use these
harbor views to orient himself as he moved
between the trading ports on these two islands.
37. The English Pilot. The Fourth Book , describing the West-India
navigation, 1789. Gift of Frederick Lewis Gay, 1916.
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38. Joseph Smith Speer, The West-India Pilot, 1771.
Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818.
39. Le Pilote de lisle de Saint-Domingue, 1787. Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818.
40. Siegfried Detlev Bendixen, "Christoph Daniel
Ebeling," 1818. Lithograph.
Houghton p *GB8.Eb332.P817b.
Pictured at his desk, Christoph Ebeling points
gently to a sideways map titled, "Amerika,"which
shows the rough shapes of North and South
America. On either side of this map, rest a book
of Euripides and a sheet of music. These three
items attest to Ebeling's abiding interest in the
Americas, the classics, and music.
The caption below his name comes from Horace's
Ars Poetica, which translates as "The mind is less
vividly stirred by what enters through the ears
than by what comes before the faithful eyes."
Ebeling had been almost completely deaf since
the 1790s. After visiting in 1817, Edward Everett
described communicating with Ebeling solely
through notes written on a slate.
41. Christoph Ebeling, Catalogue Mapparum
Geographicarum, c. 1811-1817.
Houghton MS Lat 55.
Ebeling maintained meticulous inventories of his
books and maps in several handwritten catalogs.
This catalog lists all of Ebeling's maps—close to
5,000 items or 10,000 sheets. Ebeling organized
the maps geographically, starting with general
maps of the world, heavens, and continents
before moving to larger scale maps of Asia,
Africa, and the Americas and each European
In the absence of large public libraries, private
libraries like Ebeling's were useful to consult for
scholars, politicians, and other collectors. But,
wary of less than careful borrowers of his maps,
Ebeling wrote on the first page—even before the
title—a stern rule in French and German: "I
cannot lend any of the maps contained in this
collection, to anyone no matter who ."
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42. Christoph Ebeling, Catalogus Atlantum
Mapparumque Illis Comprehensarum, c. 1776-1817.
Houghton MS Lat 58.
Kept alongside his larger Catalogus Mapparum,
this supplement tracked the maps and atlases
that Ebeling purchased by year and price. Ebeling
wanted to distinguish the maps he had bought
himself from the huge collection that, in 1794, he
inherited from the late Georg Brandes—a
governmental official and fellow graduate of
Entered in 1812, for instance, is Ebeling's copy of
the 1781 Bengal Atlas, available in the first case of
These two registers only recorded Ebeling's
maps and atlases. He maintained a third catalog,
his Bibliotheca Americana, for his 3,500 books on
North American history, geography, and culture.
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Jedidiah Morse was a leading author of
geographical textbooks around 1800. His
Geography Made Easy (1784) and American
Geography (1789) went through many editions
with and without atlases. Ebeling tried to keep
up with all the new editions—he had at least
two editions of the former and six of the latter.
He was not, however, usually impressed with
Morse's work. This copy of the first edition of
Morse's American Geography contains Ebeling's
numerous corrections and annotations.
In an 1817 letter to William Bentley, he described,
without surprise, Morse's most recent "stale
Morse had also been one of Ebeling's
correspondents, but had broken off his letters
by 1810. Morse may have soured to Ebeling's
pointing out the errors in his books; more likely,
Morse was preoccupied with the fight over
Unitarianism in New England.
44. Jedidiah Morse, Modern atlas, adapted to Morse's new School geography, 1822.
(Bottom of previous page)
43. Jedidiah Morse, American Geography, 1789.
Houghton AC8 M8372 789a (B).
"Your unalterable friend and wellwisher
Ebeling. Professor and Librarian "
Christoph Ebeling to Joel Barlow, 1812
Christoph Ebeling was a preeminent scholar on
the geography and history of North America,
but he never traveled across the Atlantic. Ebeling
instead acquired this expertise through a vast
network of correspondents. These scholarly
penpals included public figures such as the poet
and diplomat Joel Barlow, writers such as
William Bentley, and institution builders such as
Isaiah Thomas and Jeremy Belknap, the founders
of the American Antiquarian Society and the
Massachusetts Historical Society.
"It is a curious fact, that the most elaborate work on
the geography of the United States, is published at
Hamburgh, in the German tongue"
National Advocate, 25 September 1816
Ebeling's many correspondents provided
different information. Some, like Ezra Styles,
provided drawings about regional geography.
Others, no more so than William Bentley,
maintained sustained relationships. Bentley and
Ebeling communicated for more than twenty
years. They often, as Bentley records here, sent
books and maps to each other.
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45. Lewis Bayly, Manitowompae Pomantamoonk,
1686. Houghton >f ‘AC6.E1452.665mb.
Some of these exchanges were requests—
Ebeling asked Bentley in 1799 for a new edition
of Rhode Island's laws; some were recently
published works like Hannah Adams' History of
New England; and some were rarer materials, like
this abridged version of Lewis Bayly's Practice of
Piety that John Eliot had translated into the
46. Ezra Styles, Letters , 1794 and 1795. Houghton MS Am 825.
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47. William Bentley, Journal of meteorological observations , 1794-1804. Houghton f MS Am 1600.
50. Giovanni Antonio Rizzi Zannoni, Atlas Historique de la France Ancienne et Modern, 1 766.
Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818.
Many of the maps and atlases that Ebeling
collected had their basis in the desire of different
European governments to better understand
their own territory. This desire took many forms.
Sometimes it involved careful, scientific
surveying and mapping—as in the Cassini maps
to the right. Other times, as in this atlas, it
involved telling a longer narrative about a
nation's right to a particular territory.
In this atlas, Rizzi Zannoni provides the French
with a story of their royal history in maps. In
1766, this story continued happily amid the reign
of Louis XV, who personally invested in mapping
France. Had the atlas been made a few decades
later, it would have had to confront the violent
conflicts over republicanism that both fascinated
and appalled Ebeling as he watched from
Although Christoph Ebeling did not himself own
this complete set of maps by the Cassini family,
he almost surely would have wanted to.
Louis XV, after witnessing Cesar-Frangois Cassini
de Thury's cartographic skills hrst-hand, tasked
Cassini with making the most scientifically
accurate and comprehensive map of France ever
But the wars that so frustrated Ebeling and
hampered his access to sources also plagued
Cassini. Under the financial pressure of the
Seven Years' War, Cassini lost royal funding. As
a result, Cassini instead resorted to funding from
subscribers. When Cassini died in 1784, his son
took over the job and published the final sheets in
1815. Bound and hand-colored, this huge volume
contains only half of the entire set.
51. Cesar-Frangois Cassini de Thury, "Lisieux - Honheur," in Carte Generate de la France, 1756-1815.
About half of the maps that came with Christoph
Ebeling's library were originally collected by
Georg Brandes. Brandes worked for much of his
life in the Hanoverian government overseeing
infrastructure. Hanover, as this map shows, was
an Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire that
spanned from Gottingen in the south to the Elbe
River in the north. In 1769, Brandes also assumed
administrative control of the University of
Gottingen. In this role, he developed an
enormous library and cultivated a vast network
of Enlightenment intellectuals.
Although Ebeling's primary interests were in
North America, he inherited a huge collection of
working governmental maps—both printed and
manuscript—from Brandes after his death.
58. Covens et Mortier, "L'Electorat de Hannover ou les Domaines du Roi de la Grand Bretagne en
Allemagne," 1745. Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818.
I EIECTORATUS HANOVERAMJS SIVEDOMINIA REGIS MAGNA. BRITTANNIA IN GERMANIA.
While writing his geography of the United States,
Ebeling planned an atlas to go along with it. He
planned to include 18 sheets covering individual
states and regions in this Atlas von Nordamerika.
To produce the maps, Ebeling partnered with the
Berlin-based cartographer and draftsman, Daniel
Sotzmann. Like Ebeling's geographical volumes,
this atlas went unfinished. Only 10 maps, all of
individual states, are known to have been
Ebeling based his map of Maine on one by
Osgood Carleton, but he complained in a letter to
Jedidiah Morse in 1796 about its insufficiencies.
Ebeling longed for the "settlement of the Maine
boundary" and maps of the "many new
townships" so that he could rely on more than
written sources. Ebeling's difficulty in attaining
accurate maps plagued his writing and
cartography; but it did not prevent him from
achieving more than most writers in the US.
59. D. F. Sotzmann, "Maine," 1798. Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818.
60. Christoph Daniel Ebeling, "A Map of North Carolina/' 1794.
Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818.
Ebeling's interests extended well beyond the
republicanism of the new United States. Teaching
at the Handel sakademie in Hamburg led Ebeling
to collect and study the political and economic
infrastructure of Europe. This activity continued
even after he stopped teaching and took on the
role of the city's librarian where he sought
materials beyond sources for his scholarly
writings on the US.
Ebeling owned the following copy of Olof Arre's
1770 map of the waterfalls and canal in
Trollhattan, Sweden. In 1787, Ebeling hand-drew
another copy of just the lower portion of the map
so that he could add what seem to be subsequent
improvements to the canal at the bottom of the
Although neither a cartographer nor a draftsman
himself, Ebeling did produce a variety of tracings
and working documents that he could use to
study and write. Ebeling traced this map from
the corresponding map in Jedidiah Morse's 1794
edition of the American Geography. Ebeling owned
copies of the 1789, 1793, and 1796 editions of this
book, but not the 1794 with the map of North
Carolina. Before portable photography, tracings
like this provided a way for Ebeling to bring
home a copy of the map to use when he could not
attain the entire volume. These kinds of
manuscript maps allowed published maps to
circulate beyond a limited print run.
Ebeling never finished his volume on North
Carolina; neither did Ebeling and Sotzmann
successfully publish a map of the state. Still,
Ebeling was evidently gathering information
about North Carolina and beginning to plan the
61. Olof Jacobsson Arre, "Charta ofwer Trollhatte Slusswark," 1770.
Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818.
62. Christoph Daniel Ebeling, "Trolhoetta," 1787.
Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818.
Ebeling's cartographic library contained
hundreds of maps of eighteenth-century battles
in Europe. This map, for instance, celebrates the
military career of the Prussian king, Frederick
the Great, from his first major battle in Mollwitz
(1741) to the Battle of Freiberg (1762) at the end of
the Seven Years' War.
Despite owning all these battle maps, Ebeling
himself detested the wars that plagued Europe in
the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Indeed,
he blamed many of the wars on the fickleness
of kings. He hoped better for the US. In a 1799
letter, he promised, if the US were to "imitate the
French in their former principles of conquest—I
would burn my whole Book and all materials for
my Geography and History of America."
63. Ludwig Muller, "Tableau des Guerres de Frederic le Grand," 1762.
Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818.
Ebeling and the scientific community in Europe
relied on the circulation of printed and written
material to debate hypotheses and share
information. Prussia, England, and France also
all had scientific societies that hosted discussions
and published findings. The lower right of this
map, for instance, has the stamp of the Royal
Prussian Academy of Sciences.
The map itself describes four expeditions—in
Ecuador, Scandinavia, southern Africa, and
France—to determine whether the earth did,
as Newton suggested, bulge at the equator. In
French, published in Berlin, showing global
expeditions, and endorsed by the Prussian
Academy, this map illustrates both the interest in
the circulation of knowledge in Europe and the
actual form that circulation took.
64. Johann Christophe Rhode, "Carte des Differentes Operations pour Determiner la Figure de la
Terre," 1755. Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818.
A second foundational gift of the Map Collection
came at the opening dedication of Harvard's
Germanic Museum (now Busch-Reisinger
Museum). There, Archibald Cary Coolidge
promised to donate 10,000 German books and
named it the Hohenzollern Collection to honor
Prince Henry of Prussia's 1902 visit. The gift's
core was the library of Konrad von Maurer.
To create this donation, Coolidge employed
Walter Lichtenstein. Lichtenstein traveled in
Europe buying as many books relating to
German history as possible. The two kept in
frequent contact by letter and postcard, with
Lichtenstein occasionally, as in his 1905 letter,
giving the current tally of the donation.
Konrad von Maurer.
13. Katalog der Bibliothek des ... Konrad von
Harvard University Archives UAIII 50.29.03.7.
14. Postcards between Walter Lichtenstein and
A.C. Coolidge, 1900s.
Harvard University Archives HUG 1299 Box 5.
Postcards continue on following page
15. Walter Lichtenstein, Letter to Coolidge,
30 September 1905.
Harvard University Archives HUG 1299 Box 5.
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Harvard University Archives HUGFP 11.10.
17. Atlas arranged by Georg Ludwig von Maurer.
Many of the maps in Archibald Coolidge's
Hohenzollern Collection relate to Bavaria and
came in the library of Konrad von Maurer.
Although Konrad von Maurer was a historian of
Scandinavia, his library was built upon the
library of his father, Georg Ludwig. Also a
historian, Georg Ludwig von Maurer studied
German laws and land rights and served for most
of his life as an official in the Bavarian
In these roles, he collected many maps that
focused on history, land, and taxation in Bavaria.
This map, a sheet in a large-scale series of
Bavaria, shows the "Grundsteuerkataster" —
property tax register—for Landsberg. Its
annotations combine updates about land values
with notes about historical events. As a whole,
the series documents in detail taxation in Bavaria.
65. "Eintheilung des Koniglichen Landgerichts Landsberg," c. 1811. Gift of A.C. Coolidge, 1904.
A dizzying array of annotations almost
completely hides the map on this page. Showing
a tiny area in Bavaria, the map, probably
annotated by Georg Ludwig von Maurer,
documents both historical events and
information on taxation.
Some annotations begin with a date, mostly
between 1100 and 1400.
Ending with the Latin for "witness," these
notations seem to suggest the first available
documentation for particular estates. Other
annotations include three figures. These three
numbers seem to indicate the monetary value of
an estate. All this information would have been
useful to von Maurer as both legal historian and
66. "Bavaria, Vicinity of Nordlingen," c. 1813. Gift of A.C. Coolidge, 1904.
Archibald Cary Coolidge taught history for 16
years at Harvard before becoming the director of
the library in 1910. With considerable
inheritances from uncles and grandparents,
Coolidge never needed a salary and, in fact, used
personal funds for gifts like the Hohenzollern
Collection. These gifts often—but not always—
centered on his own professional interests in
Russia, the Balkans, and Central Europe.
This map, for instance, connects with his work
editing an English edition of The Secret Treaties
of Austria-Hungary, 1879-1914 (1920-1) by Alfred
Pribram. Covering the historical period before
this volume, the map registers changes in the
Austro-Hungarian Empire. Someone pasted over
the Venetia-Lombardy region to adjust what had
been a map of the Austrian Empire to reflect the
new borders of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
67. Karl Czoernig, "Ethnographische Karte der Oesterreichischen Monarchic," 1857.
Gift of A.C. Coolidge, 1912.
In building on the von Maurers' library, Coolidge
wanted to provide Harvard with a
comprehensive array of sources about the history
of the German lands. Coolidge hired Walter
Lichtenstein to travel Europe and purchase books
for Coolidge and the Hohenzollern Collection.
While he mostly bought books, he did acquire a
significant number of maps. Like the rest of the
Hohenzollern Collection, these maps built on the
core of Bavarian material in the von Maurers'
library while broadening out to include material
on all the German lands.
This map, one of the maps that extended the
coverage of Bavaria, depicts religious affiliation
in the region through the parishes and
population serving different faiths.
68. Georg Mayr, "Karte der Kirchlichen Eintheilung des Konigreichs Bayern," 1841.
Gift of A.C. Coolidge, 1906.
Scholars and Staff
Although Archibald Cary Coolidge's generosity
was virtually unmatched among other faculty
and staff, he was only one of many affiliates to
shape the Map Collection while still at Harvard.
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth
centuries, other Harvard faculty, students, and
alumni enriched the Map Collection by
depositing the material of their work and study.
For scholars like Erwin Raisz and Francis
Parkman, these maps were at the heart of their
scholarship and teaching: for Raisz, textbooks
and geological cross-sections made in lecture; for
Parkman, dozens of manuscript copies of rare
maps from around the world used in writing the
many volumes of France and England in North
America (1865-1892). But for others, like the art
historian Charles Eliot Norton, the maps,
although important works, were almost
incidental parts of much larger libraries given
over many years.
In January 1894, the Map Collection received 89
maps from the library of Francis Parkman (A.B.
1844). Parkman, who had died just two months
earlier, collected and made these maps while
writing his multi-volume history of French
Canada. These maps ranged from recent US
Coast Survey charts of North America to
manuscript copies of rare or hard to access
originals. To obtain copies of these maps,
Parkman enlisted friends of colleagues, much as
Christoph Ebeling had done decades earlier.
This map of the 1690 English siege of Quebec, for
instance, was probably copied for Parkman by
Pierre-Louis Morin, the Land Surveyor of Lower
Canada, on one of his research trips to Paris in
the 1840s. The original map, also a manuscript,
was in Paris and is now held at the Bibliotheque
Nationale de France.
Brought together, two centuries' worth of
donations from students and faculty show
scholars at work. With them, the Map Collection
attests not just to the history of maps but the
making of knowledge with and through
69. Robert de Villeneuve, "Plan de Quebec, et de
ses Environs, en la Nouvelle France Assiege par
les Anglois," 1690, copied c. 1850.
Gift of Francis Parkman, 1894.
Charles Eliot Norton (A.B. 1846) taught Art
History at Harvard from 1874 until his retirement
in 1898. He donated to the library throughout his
life and, when he died in 1905, most of the rest of
his library came to Harvard. His donations
included rare Latin manuscripts, forty fifteenth-
century printed books, and numerous other rare
Eliot's donations also included much more
common items, such as this map from the
Mexican-American War (1846-1848). The advent
of lithographic printing meant newspapers and
maps proliferated with accounts of battles and
advances. Lithography also allowed maps like
this one, printed from a drawing sent back with a
general's report, to appear in executive
documents of the United States House of
70. Edmund Lafayette Hardcastle, "Sketch of the Operations of the 1st Division of the US Army ....
Battle of El Molino del Rey," 1848. Gift of Charles Eliot Norton, 1863.
Composite atlases like this one could be made to
order from a publisher with specific sheets or
assembled later from sheets collected
individually. A surgeon who lived on Wing's
Lane near Faneuil Hall in Boston, Miles
Whitworth either inherited this personalized
Dutch atlas or ordered it himself from a book
seller. The table of contents notes that some
sheets are missing—but it's unclear if they are
sheets Whitworth never had or ones that were
Like some gifts, this donation came to Harvard
with conditions. Although it would belong to the
library, John Winthrop, Hollis Professor of
Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, would
keep it "for his perusal and use." Winthrop
himself led Harvard's first scientific expedition, a
trip in 1761 to Newfoundland to see the transit of
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54. Composite Atlas Made by Miles Whitworth, c. 1760. Gift of Miles Whitworth, 1763.
Erwin Raisz (1893-1968) was a cartographer and
geographer who spent his career showing the
Earth in new ways and teaching others to do so
as well. This unusual view shows Europe with a
cross-section, a format that Raisz employed often
in the regions he mapped. He had been trained as
an architectural draftsman while at school in
Budapest, before moving to the United States
after World War I. He obtained a PhD in geology
from Columbia University, then started working
in 1931 as a lecturer and map curator at
Harvard's Institute of Geographical Exploration.
This visually dramatic map shows his unique
blend of his skills: his artistic renderings of
mountains and cities fit neatly into the
carefully labeled geological layers of the region.
The cross-section shows more than traditional
maps could about how the space shared by
physical and man-made features.
29. Erwin Raisz,
"From Lubeck to Milan," 1960-1968.
Gift of the Raisz Family.
55. Erwin Raisz, General Cartography , 1938. Gif t of Erwin Raisz.
Written by Institute of Geographical Exploration
(IGE) lecturer Erwin Raisz, these two textbooks
showcase Raisz's innovations in visualizations —
at their largest in the immense cross section map,
"From Lubeck to Milan," earlier in this
exhibition. General Cartography was the first
textbook on cartography in English. It not only
included a meticulously researched history of
cartographic practice but also the innovations
for modern cartography that Raisz pioneered
while he was teaching at the IGE. Raisz published
the Atlas of Global Geography while he was making
maps for the US government during World War
II. The Atlas is full of cartograms and projections
that he invented for the sake of negotiating peace
as well as maps created through the use of aerial
56. Raisz, Atlas of Global Cartography, c. 1944. Gift of Erwin Raisz.
49. [A Complete Map of the
Seacoast of the Seven Provinces Along the
Coast]/' c. 1840. Gift of J.K. Fairbank, 1987.
John King Fairbank began researching China as a
Harvard student in the 1920s and continued until
he retired as a Harvard professor. As Fairbank
later recalled, "China appealed to me at age
twenty-two as something interesting that no
one else seemed to be doing." In 1955, Fairbank
founded Harvard's East Asian Research Center—
renamed for him in 1973. In 1987 he donated
several maps of China and Korea, including this
22-foot-long manuscript scroll map of coastal
China (reproduced here at actual size). In his
letter donating the map, Fairbank commented
that "the map world should be unified and just
because this map is in Chinese it should not be
consigned to the Chinese library."
Rooted in place, the Map Collection has always
relied on travelers, collectors, and cartographers
returning from their travels with maps. With
their donations, these fellow travelers have
instilled the Map Collection with their own
personalities and the evidence of their lives. For
Ukrainian nationalist and emigre Bohdan
Krawciw, this network brought together the
fierce longing for an independent homeland and
his life in New York after World War II. For the
activist and politician Charles Sumner, this
network bridged pre-Civil War anti-slavery
activism and his international diplomacy after
the Civil War. For doctor and collector Ernest
Goodrich Stillman, this network connected his
family's banking and real estate on the US-
Mexican border with his love of and travel in
Even as these personal collections have been
separated into different folders and different
shelves, they have given the Map Collection
a structure on which it can continue to build.
Despite coming from a variety of backgrounds
and parts of the world, these generous donors
have been predominantly white men. As a result,
the interests and practices of, predominantly,
wealthy, white men have created the collection's
often invisible and unspoken framework, which
can therefore eclipse the perspectives of people
who did not share their privilege.
Henry Walling stands apart in the history of
American mapmakers, both for his output and
his commitment to accuracy. He began his career
mapping his native Rhode Island before map¬
ping the counties and towns of Massachusetts.
As a commercial mapmaker, Walling published
around 400 maps covering areas in 20 states.
The Harvard Map Collection holds close to 100
maps produced by Walling and his various
partners. Walling himself donated 26 of his maps,
including this one of Middlesex County, in 1859
while he was set up in New York. We don't know
why he chose to donate the maps at to Harvard,
but we are thankful that he did.
48. Henry F. Walling, "Map of Middlesex County/' 1856. Gift of Henry Walling, 1859.
Charles Sumner's entire library came to Harvard
in 1874 as part of Sumner's bequest after his
death in 1872. In his will, he also left a substantial
portion of his wealth to Harvard's library
because, as he wrote, "all my life I have been a
user of books, and having few of my own I have
relied on the libraries of friends and on public
When this map was published in 1868, Sumner,
the long-serving senator, was heavily involved
in international relations. He was instrumental
in annexing the Alaskan territory, and he rallied
against US imperialism in the Caribbean.
Whether or not this map was practically useful
for such work, it likely served at least as a
memento for Sumner's many travels and global
71. Tehuantepec Railway Co., "Tehuantepec Railway Company's Chart of the World on Mercator's
Projection," 1868. Gift of Charles Sumner, 1872.
"A. Shortfellow"—pseudonym of William Russell
West, a Philadelphia architect—published this
map in The Proof-Sheet. When the Boston-elite¬
bashing satire was printed in 1869, the nationally
acclaimed Atlantic Monthly was under scrutiny
because of another figure named in the map,
abolitionist writer Harriet Beecher Stowe. Stowe
had published an article in the Atlantic that year
that denounced the poet Lord Byron for cheating
on his wife with his half-sister. Many readers,
who loved his poetry, were enraged at the
salacious story and its being made public.
Banishing her to a "guano island" —a Peruvian
islands being mined for fertilizer-rich bird
droppings - probably seemed like a suitable
punishment to many readers.
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72. A. Shortfellow, "Map of Boston and adjacent country showing that city to be the geographical as
well as intellectual and moral centre of one half of the globe," 1869. Gift of Charles Sumner, 1872.
The abolitionist William Bloss, whose home in
upstate New York was an Underground Railroad
stop, made this map during the 1856 "Bleeding
Kansas" crisis. Using text at the bottom of this
map written by Sumner and Henry Ward
Beecher, Bloss illustrated in this map the uneasy
balance of power that kept slavery out of
Sumner suffered for his abolitionism. After he
vehemently denounced Kansas in the Senate this
same year, the South Carolina congressman
Preston Brooks famously beat Sumner with a
cane so violently that Sumner was nearly killed
and had to leave the Senate to recover for
several years. He gave this map to Harvard in
1860, while he was still partly convalescing.
9IISii s.illi 1*1 flillftii!!*
POSSESSION AND AGGalsSIOlfS OF THE SLAVE POWER
BY WILLiam C. i LOS!
73. William C. Bloss, "Map of the United States and Territories Showing the Possessions and
Aggressions of the Slave Power," 1856. Gift of Charles Sumner, 1860.
William Sumner Appleton (A.B.
I860, LL.B. 1865) was an expert
on coins and heraldry. In 1861,
his father, Nathan, died leaving
him enough money that he never
needed a salary. Nathan had been
a successful Boston merchant, who
worked exporting cloth and
importing European goods before
focusing on manufacturing and
politics. Given the timing of his
donation, the maps probably
belonged to Nathan, perhaps
acquired to study trading ports, but
did not seem to interest William
The note on the bottom map
explains in Spanish that it is a
reduced version of a map made by
the Nautical Academy in Lima and
that the upper map is copied from
an English map by James Colnett.
74. "Carta del Archipelago de los Galapagos," based on a map
by James Colnett, c. 1809.
Gift of William Sumner Appleton, 1863.
75. "Carta Reducida que
Comprende una Parte
de Ambas Americas en
el Mar del Sur," c. 1805.
Gift of William Sumner
53. Guillaume Delisle, "Carte d'une Partie des
Cantons de Berne de Fribourg du Pais/' in Atlas
Nouveau, 1733. Gift of John Peabody Monks, 1924.
Travels in the real and imagined worlds combine
on this stunning page from Delisle's atlas, created
for the Duke of Burgundy. This map conjures an
idyllic image of Switzerland with mountains,
waterfalls, and cheerfully hard-working peasants.
This scene devolves completely into fantasy upon
reaching the "Mountain of the Dragon in the
region of Lucerne." Here, a hr e-breathing dragon
emerges from a peak, as if to warn the travelers
admiring the waterfall not to lose themselves
deep in the hinterland. As atlases became
increasingly technical and cartographers
included shifting borders and settlements in ever
greater detail, mapmakers still found ways to
include whimsical details to entice buyers who
wanted beauty as much as they wanted
To trace the development of the Map Collection,
"Follow the Map" highlights a variety of
donations—from employees, alumni, and
other benefactors. These gifts and the people who
made them often inspired future donors. Ernest
G. Stillman (A.B. 1908), for instance, took
inspiration from Archibald Coolidge, who led
Stillman and other students on a trip to Japan in
1905. In his diary made during the journey,
Stillman recounted dining with the Japanese
Emperor, shopping in Kyoto, and the scenery
in Nikko. He also detailed, with a map, how his
steamship almost collided with a nearby
As Stillman told a later director of the library,
before the trip, Coolidge had shown Stillman the
barely "five foot shelf of books relating to Japan."
The poverty of Harvard's Japanese collection
spurred Stillman, in the 1930s and 1940s, to
donate hundreds of maps, pamphlets,
photographs, and books gathered from his study
and travel in Japan. As you progress through the
exhibition, you will learn more about Stillman
and these other personalities now combined in
19. E.G. Stillman, Diary, 2 July-7 September 1905.
Houghton MS Am 1196.
7 January 1942.
12 January 1942. Harvard University Archives
UAIII 184.108.40.206 Box 93.
18. Photo with E.G. Stillman, A.C. Coolidge, and
W.H. Taft, 1905. Harvard University Archives
HUG 1299 Box 7.
On 11 July 1937, Ernest Stillman's personal
librarian sent a note to Harvard's Assistant
Librarian that seven boxes were on their way to
the library. Among them were maps, he noted,
that "every Japanese" visitor has been amazed
were owned by "an American citizen." The maps
were interesting enough that, by that October,
Erwin Raisz had scooped them up for the
Institute for Geographical Exploration.
Ernest Stillman's donation included a wide range
of materials that reflected his broad interests.
A medical researcher in pulmonology, Stillman
sponsored horticultural research, invented
machinery, and practiced photography—
thousands of his photos are now in Harvard's
collections. His obituary mentions being known
for arriving at fires in New York City carrying
both "his first-aid kit and a moving picture
76. Shihei Hayashi "The Three Ryukyu Provinces" -=.+7x1111 (DEI, c. 1790.
Gift of E.G. Stillman.
By 1905, Nikko had become a popular tourist site
for domestic and foreign travelers. As this map
shows, Nikko enticed visitors with gorgeous
rivers and waterfalls covering a landscape full of
seventeenth-century shrines. In a 1 August 1905
entry in the diary from his school trip to Japan,
reproduced here, Ernest Stillman mentions
seeing Nikko's "beautiful lakes and river" and
venturing to the shrines where he saw the "place
thronged with pilgrims in their white costumes."
77. Mohei Inoue Hi, "A Panoramic View
of the Nikko Empire of Japan" ^ST^^gS^'clll
-5t£H, 1900. Gift of E.G. Stillman.
In this diary, Stillman lists four and a half yen
for a print of Nikko. Perhaps it was this one, he
donated no others of Nikko.
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Not all of E.G. Stillman's donations had to do
with Japan. Stillman's grandfather had begun
an extensive banking and real estate business in
Brownsville, Texas—almost the southernmost
point in the state. Stillman's father—James
Jewett—built up this business even further. His
land deals along the border established his
credentials enough to earn him a position as the
chairman of National City Bank.
J.J. Stillman even financially supported Porhrio
Diaz and his Plan of Tuxtepec in 1876.
This map of the border between Texas and
Mexico in the 1870s shows the ranches on both
sides of the river. The note explains that it was
made to study and eliminate robberies—useful
information for a real estate investor!
78. M.T. Martinez, "Mapa del Rio Grande desde su Desembocadura en el Golfo hasta San Vicente,
Presidio Antiguo," c. 1873. Gift of E.G. Stillman.
In 1952, Stephen W. Phillips and Curt H.
Reisinger purchased for Harvard 159 maps from
the New York dealer H. P. Kraus. In 1949, Kraus
had purchased the map library of the royal
family of Liechtenstein, the bulk of which Prince
Johann II had acquired from the cartographer
Franz von Hauslab in 1883. The 159 maps now at
Harvard were considered 159 of the "choicest"
maps, mostly rare sixteenth-century material.
The bulk of the Liechtenstein-Hauslab library is
now at the Library of Congress.
The Liechtenstein maps now reside at Houghton
Library because, in 1952, the Map Collection was
in flux. It was short on space in Widener after the
return of modern maps from the recently closed
Institute for Geographical Exploration.
33. Caspar Vopel, "Nova et integra universalisque orbis totius," 1558. Houghton p 51-2577.
Liechtenstein Map Collection.
Marguerite McBey donated 107 maps, primarily
of northern Africa, in 1973 based on a chance
encounter with Professor Robert Chapman.
Chapman, then the director of the Loeb Drama
Center, met McBey while travelling in Tangier,
where McBey had moved decades earlier with
her late husband, a well-known artist. In a 4 May
1971 letter. Chapman passed along to the curator
Frank Trout that McBey had a hundred maps
that she would eventually like to donate
somewhere. After letters back and forth about
Morocco and maps, McBey and Trout finalized
the donation. Chapman himself brought the
maps to London to ship to the US. Many of the
107 maps, like this one, show the Strait of
Gibraltar, which McBey could see from her estate
and house, El Foolk.
She signed all her letters: ^
79. Jacques Beilin, "Carte du Detroit de Gibraltar," 1761. Gift of James and Marguerite McBey, 1973.
The estate of Susan Norton left the Harvard
Library with a unique assortment of items: scores
of autographs from letters to Charles Eliot
Norton; dozens of Italian watercolors; a delicate
book of pressed plants each annotated with
quotations from Shakespeare. The estate also
included both a beautifully written, bound
manuscript in Arabic and this map of Africa. A
previous owner, most likely before it came into
Norton's estate, has relabeled in an Arabic script
the various place names that the printed map
labeled in English. As this map suggests, even
with some provenance, a map can still contain
plenty of mystery.
By representing the interior of southern Africa as
completely empty, Arrowsmith's map
encouraged European exploration—and
exploitation. In turn, the manuscript annotations
invoke the Ottoman Empire and the spread of
Islam in Africa prior to European colonialism.
57. Aaron Arrowsmith, 'Africa," 1811. Bequest of Susan Norton, 1990.
80. Joseph Nicholas Delisle, "Mappa Generalis Totius Imperii Russici," 1745.
Gift of Bohdan and Neonila Krawciw, 2005.
Bohdan Krawciw began collecting maps of
Ukraine upon his arrival in the United States
from war-torn Central Europe in 1949. A
dissident poet and journalist, he sought greater
recognition of Ukraine as an independent nation,
free from Polish, Austro-Hungarian, Russian, and
Soviet influence. With his personal collection of
over 700 maps, Krawciw intended to write a
general history of Ukraine called Monumenta
Cartographica Ucrainae (Cartographic Monuments
of Ukraine). But he left the project unfinished at
his death in 1975.
Although Krawciw sought Ukrainian
independence, not all his maps shared the same
view or even prioritized Ukraine. This 1745 map,
for instance, shows the vast Russian Empire with
parts of Ukraine only at the very western
periphery—labeled in Russian as "Kiewskaia
Guberniia," "Bielogorodskaia Guberniia," and
Starting in 1648, French military engineer
Guillaume Le Vasseur Beauplan created a series
of maps of Ukraine. Beauplan's maps provided
detailed surveys of what had been a relatively
unmapped region. This map of the Dniepr River,
Ukraine's largest and most important waterway,
includes nine waterfalls that hindered boat travel.
In addition to their geographic detail, Beauplan's
maps represented Ukraine's cultural history,
particularly the Cossacks in the map cartouches.
To Bohdan Krawciw, Beauplan's cartography
established a European picture of Ukrainian
identify. Indeed, for over a century Beauplan's
maps served as the authoritative foundation
for future cartographers, ensuring that Ukraine
would commonly be labeled as the "Land of the
81. Guillaume Le Vasseur Beauplan, "Tractus Borysthenis, Vulgo Dniepr et Niepr Dicti," 1662.
Gift of Bohdan and Neonila Krawciw, 2005.
82. Heorg Hasenko, "Svitova Mapa: z Rozmishchenniam Ukrai'ntsiv Po Svitu," 1920.
Gift of Bohdan and Neonila Krawciw, 2005.
Bohdan Krawciw built his collection to document
important aspects of Ukrainian culture, history,
and geography. This map illustrates the
demographic mobility that characterized Ukraine
in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The
first of these waves of emigration occurred
between 1880 and 1920, largely in response to
agrarian resettlement. Many emigrants favored a
part of far eastern Russian called Zeleny Klyn—
or Green Ukraine—prominent on the map as a
red zone on the Pacific Coast of Russia.
Other emigrants chose North America, notably
the major cities on the Eastern Seaboard, the
Midwest, and several Canadian cities. A table
on the map notes that over 1.2 million emigrants
made their way to North America from 1821 to
1915. This wave of emigration foreshadowed an
even larger emigration from 1920 to the end of
World War II.
83. "Ukraine," 1919. Gift of Bohdan and Neonila Krawciw, 2005.
This postcard illustrates the upheaval occurring
in Ukraine when Bohdan and Neonila Krawciw
were children. Six different armies occupied its
territory, and the capital, Kiev, changed hands
five times in less than a year. The cities emptied
as starving citizens fled to the countryside and
contact with the outside world was almost
completely cut off.
Having witnessed firsthand the collapse of their
homeland, and fearing its continued political
fragility, Neonila organized the map collection
on index cards and kept the collection private for
almost three decades after her husband's death.
Following Neonila's death in 2003, their daughter
Maria Dzwenyslawa continued organizing it and
then donated the "Bohdan and Neonila Antique
Ucrainica Map Collection" to Harvard. In doing
so, she united the Krawciws' maps with Bohdan
Krawciw's personal papers and library held at
Harvard's Ukrainian Research Institute.
Born in 1935 in L'viv in what is now Ukraine,
Nicholas Krawciw arrived with his family from
Germany to a Ukranian-American community
in Philadelphia. A member of the Plast National
Scout Organization of Ukraine as a child,
Krawciw took to military life and graduated from
West Point in 1959. After serving two tours in
Vietnam, he continued a long career where he
became an Army Major General. In 1993, he
worked in Ukraine to help restructure the
Ukrainian army in line with democratic
Drawn on the back side of a Russian map (most
likely a duplicate in his father's collection), this
manuscript map of "Prospect Park" is signed
"Scout J. Demydchuk." Whether a nom de plume
for the younger Krawciw or a fellow emigre boy
scout, this map provides an extensive legend for
the natural features and even displays elevation
data, with contour line intervals of one foot.
"I am at Bachelor Station
any inducement to move to City of Bliss?"
A sly wedding proposal to Esther Johnson on one of
Siegfried Feller's Postcards
In 2007, Siegfried Feller donated his passion
project, over 10,000 cartographic postcards. For
more than a decade. Feller had run a newsletter,
Cartomania, that included regular quizzes. Many
subscribers set in their answers on map postcards
to Feller's home in Pelham, Massachusetts. Feller
added postcards sent from friends and many he
purchased, some of which have personal notes
in many different languages dating back as far as
the 1890s. Before his retirement. Feller worked for
more than twenty years as the chief bibliographer
at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Postcards continue on following page
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52. Abraham Ortelius, Theatrum orbis terrarium Abrahami Orteli Antverp: The Theater of the Whole World,
1606. Gift of Charles J. Tanenbaum, 2001.
As the only edition of the Abraham Ortelius''
famous atlas published in English, this atlas was
one of the most important, single items donated
to the Map Collection in the new millennium. It
complements the Collection's 1633 English
edition of Gerhard Mercator's Atlas, the other
monumental atlas of Early Modern Europe.
Beginning in 1570, Ortelius standardized his map
formatting and insisted on consistent
composition and arrangement. These changes
marked a huge shift in map publishing and were
hugely popular. Originally published in Latin,
further editions incorporated vernacular
European languages and grew from the 53 maps
in the 1570 edition to 119 maps in later editions.
Curators and Staff
On the framework that donors have provided,
staff at the Map Collection have sought a vision
for the future. Although the collection began in
1818, the first curator started only in 1884.
Justin Winsor, the Librarian of Harvard
University and a historian of cartography,
appointed Henry Badger. Badger actively
solicited donations and created a classification
scheme. For several decades after Badger finished
in 1892, the collection lived without a permanent
The permanent curators picked up again in 1939,
with Robert Haynes and Mary Bryan serving the
longest. Beginning in 1966 Frank Trout devoted
his time to acquiring topographic series. He
understood these both as working documents—
people often came to consult the most recent
maps—and also as historical sources. Even still,
when David Cobb began in 1992, he found a
collection that had not changed in vision since
1966. Mapping was rapidly changing. Data and
GIS needed to be a major part of the Map
All these curators negotiated between building
on the collection's strengths and filling in its
gaps. By excavating the Map Collection's history,
we will build into our third century with a better
understanding of the politics of these "strengths"
List of Curators
Henry Badger (1884-1892)
Walter Briggs (1915-1938), part-time
Robert Haynes (1939-1947)
William K Naulty (1948-1951)
Mary Bryan (1952-1960)
Robert Haynes (1961-1963)
James Romer (1963-1964)
Rosemary Weber (1964-1966)
Frank Trout (1966-1991)
David Cobb (1992-2008)
Joseph Garver (2008-2015)
Bonnie Burns (2015-)
100. Gerard Mercator, [Terrestrial Globe], 1541
and [Celestial Globe], 1551. Transfer from the
Institute for Geographical Exploration.
In 1928, book dealer Philip Rosenbach acquired
this pair of globes and donated both to Harvard's
Institute for Geographical Exploration in 1936.
After the IGE closed, they were transferred to the
When curator David Cobb arrived in 1992, he
rediscovered these neglected treasures. With the
support of J. Christopher Flowers ('79) and Mary
H. White, and Carl H. Pforzheimer III ('58, MBA
'63) and Betty Pforzheimer, Cobb gave these
artifacts a new life. With Boston Map Society
member Jeremy Pool ('67), Cobb developed a
website to allow the world to navigate the globes
online. As curator, Cobb brought the collection
into the digital age and was a founder of the
BMS. But he sees preserving and providing
access to these globes as one of the most
important accomplishments of his tenure.
Details on following page
As the first permanent curator, Henry Badger
faced a daunting task. Harvard's cartographic
collection had never had its own classification
system nor had Harvard been particularly active
in collecting maps. Badger petitioned the
university to provide a fund dedicated to
acquiring maps. In addition, in the local
newspaper the Boston Evening Transcript, Badger
even published a note stating that "gifts of old
maps, atlases, or school atlases, no matter how
poor or worthless as they may appear to be, are
Badger followed his own advice in donating
this map of the Arctic. It shows in red the many
explorations north, including one added by hand
to show the route of the USS Polaris in 1872 and
85. William Bauman, "Map of the North Polar Region," 1875. Gift of Henry Clay Badger, 1888.
The Map Collection has moved, contracted, and
(mostly) reassembled alongside the changing
university. The most dramatic shifts followed
the opening of the Institute for Geographical
Exploration (IGE) in 1930. The cartographer
Erwin Raisz became the IGE's map curator and
the library transferred its geographically up-to-
date maps there. But, only 22 years later. Harvard
closed the institute. Harvard's administration
was suspicious of both the IGE as a bastion of
amateur explorers and also geography's very
suitability as an academic discipline.
When the IGE closed in 1952, the return of the
up-to-date maps overwhelmed storage in rooms
L, M, and N of Widener Library. In 1956, the
Associate University Librarian recommended
effectively dismantling the Map Collection
because, compared to past generations, "the
present generation of historians does not employ
maps as intensively." The Map Collection sent
114atlases to Houghton Library and thousands of
other maps to Harvard-Yenching, the Museum of
Comparative Zoology, Landscape Architecture,
and the Business School.
In the 1970s, these materials mostly returned
to the more spacious Map Collection in Pusey
Library—the atlases returned from Houghton
in 1987. As Harvard Library has sought a more
unified approach —consolidating and shrinking
some libraries—the Map Collection has grown.
Through these institutional changes, we can
better understand the changing meaning of a
unified cartographic collection.
22. Robert Haynes, Memo on the Map Collection
and the Institute for Geographical Exploration,
1952. Harvard University Archives UAV 461.451.
Memo continues on following page
As the Map Collection has grown through
donations and acquisitions, it has also adapted to
institutional shifts. In particular, the opening of
Houghton Library in 1942 and the tempestuous
tenure of the Institute for Geographical
Exploration (IGE) from 1930 to 1952.
When the IGE opened, the library transferred its
most up-to-date maps there. The curator, Erwin
Raisz, maintained the contemporary collection
at the IGE while the historical maps were kept
on the 3rd floor of Widener. When IGE closed
in 1952, however, the Map Collection's curator,
Robert Haynes, was asked to assess how to bring
the IGE's collection back to the Map Collection.
Short on space, he suggested transferring many
of the rare materials to the new Houghton
86. Institute of Geographical Exploration,
"Mosaic Made from 12 Vertical Air Photographs
over Scituate Harbor and Vicinity1934.
Transfer from the IGE.
The staff and faculty at the Institute of
Geographical Exploration were enthusiastic
about the possibilities aerial photography offered
to mapmaking. H.E. Whitman prepared this print
using several photographs stitched together, in
order to mimic a map. As time went on, the IGE
supplemented and added details to its maps
using aerial photographs, especially in wartime.
By combining aerial photographs into a mosaic
like this one, IGE geographers synthesized new
technology with their many years of cartographic
training. Combining technologies across
disciplines and time periods has always been,
and continues to be, a hallmark of making maps.
87. Waterlow and Sons, "General Map of the Witwatersrand Gold Fields/' 1896.
Transfer from the IGE.
This map exemplifies how mapmaking is often
tied to imperialism. Published in London, the
map shows the holdings of the Consolidated
Gold Fields of South Africa, Ltd., a company
created ten years earlier when the Witwatersrand
Gold Rush began. As the gold rush gained
momentum, the British began a concerted effort
to take over the land. This aggression led directly
to the Jameson Raid of 1895-96 (while this map
was in production) and then to the Second Boer
War in 1899.
Harvard's Museum of Comparative Zoology
obtained this map, then passed it along to the
Institute of Geographical Exploration when the
latter was founded. The IGE consolidated
Harvard collections from expeditions that
brought back geographic and geological
information, many of which are morally
problematic by today's standards.
This map of Indonesia is one of the top-secret
maps—labeled as such in Japanese in the upper
right—made by the Japanese Army during World
War II. During the war, the US government
frequently consulted and borrowed maps held at
the Institute of Geographical Exploration.
Afterwards, the Library of Congress obtained
Japanese military maps like this one captured by
the Allied forces.
The government then gave more than 6,000 of
these captured maps that duplicated their
holdings to IGE along with the maps the
government had borrowed.
The overprinting in different colors provides
details that Japanese forces could use as they
sought to expand their empire in the Pacific. Its
detailed practicality, though, masks the death
and destruction that followed behind it.
88. Japanese Army, PH1E, #iS^n|5, "Sheet 1: Sorong," in Seibu "Nyu Ginia" heiyo chishi shiryo zu, 1943.
Transfer from the IGE.
89. Karl Squires Engineers, "Zoning Map of Greater Miami/' 1935.
Transferred from Loeb Library, Harvard Graduate School of Design.
From a practical standpoint, maps can be difficult
for a traditional library to store. As libraries on
campus have become pressed for space, many
maps have been moved around campus. With
space shortages in Widener, the Map Collection
had transferred many atlases by the Sanborn
Insurance Company and other maps to the
Frances Loeb Library at the GSD. In 1971, these
atlases were returned to the Map Collection
along with thousands of other maps as the Map
Collection moved into the more spacious Pusey
The Loeb Library transferred this plan of garden
village (tuindorp) street profiles along with many
landscape architecture maps to the Map
Collection in the 1970s. Produced in 1916, this
map shows how the early tuindorp movement in
the Netherlands attempted to address
substandard and crowded housing for Dutch
workers. This sketch focuses on landscape rather
The maps from Loeb focus on zoning, planning,
and landscape design maps—topics that lend
themselves to large maps at small scales, such as
the preceding tropically colored zoning map of
Miami from the 1930s.
than buildings. It set standards for how wide
the streets should be and the distance between
house, sidewalk, and street.
This type of working document often did not
survive. Given the state of post-World War I
Europe, it is even more surprising that this item
90. Granpre Moliere-Verhagen en Kok
Architecten, "Nueerste Rotterdamich Tuindorp
Plan van Uitbreiding Dwarsprohelen," c. 1916.
Transferred from Loeb Library, Harvard
Graduate School of Design.
j S+ree-f3-"C»^8-9^yow» 46-A
National parks are an interesting intersection of
conservation, planning and landscape
architecture. Loeb Library collected many master
plans over the years, some of which were
transferred to the Map Collection during a recent
renovation of the Loeb Library space.
This is the cover sheet for the hand-colored
master plan for Crater Lake National Park in
Eastern Oregon. The lake was formed by the
eruption and collapse of Mount Mazama more
than 7,000 years ago. Wizard Island, featured in
the view, is a cinder cone formed by a later
eruption. The rest of the plan includes hand-
drawn and colored maps of the important built
areas of the park.
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OE THE INTERIOR
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
THE MASTER. PLAN
(nnn> Like Smo\ // Pm
Crater [ nL-« Na4 Par^ 37-M
91. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service, "The Master Plan, Crater Lake
National Park, Oregon," 1942. Transferred from Loeb Library, Harvard Graduate School of Design.
92. Olof Wenstrom, "Karta ofver Lillgrufvan," 1886. Transferred from Kummel Library.
Kummel Library for the Geological Sciences was
created in 1962, merging several collections from
across campus, including the Rotch Mining
Library. When Kummel was closed in 2005, most
of the collection shifted to Cabot Library, but
many of the maps came to the Map Collection.
This beautiful hand drawn profile of Lillgrufvan
(Little Mine) is part of a series drawn by mining
engineer Olof Wenstrom in 1886. Born in Sweden,
he and his American wife and son emigrated to
the Boston area, where he became a highly
successful and respected member of the
American Institute of Mining Engineers. While
we don't know of a specific connection to
Harvard, the existence of the Rotch Mining
Library in the area would make the Harvard
Library a reasonable donation site.
Maps of the Map Room
The Map Collection has lived in five buildings on
campus. It started in Harvard Hall when it
arrived in 1818 and then moved to Gore Hall
with the rest of the library.
When Widener opened, it received its own
location in rooms L, M, and N on the third floor.
But, as it grew, space became too limited there.
In 1964, the collection moved briefly to Room 101
in Lamont Library near the West Entrance just
down the hall from here.
And, when the Pusey Library opened in 1976, the
Map Collection moved to its present location.
In 1956, the library considered new plans for the
Map Room in Widener to use only rooms L and
M, freeing up room N for other people.
The working map of the Map Collection in 2002
THE OFFICIAL MAP OF
The Harvard Map Collection
The Map Gai
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Maps and Wars
For Georg Brandes and Christoph Ebeling,
globally free trade seemed to promise a world
without war. As Thorndike's business illustrates,
that ideal relied on a kind of capitalism reliant
on the violence of slavery. Much as the genocidal
brutality of slavery made possible the eighteenth-
century foundation of the Map Collection, so too
in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries have
the death and destruction of war given
cartography a powerful, but bloody engine.
The US Civil War (1861-1865), World War I
(1914-1918), and World War II (1939-1945) all
occasioned the incredible proliferation of maps.
Some, like a naval serviceman's map of
approaches to Iwo Jima, provided active
guidance in battle; others, like Robert Howard
Lord's collection of maps of Europe, sought to
understand demographics as treaties redrew
the political borders of Europe in the 1920s. Still
others, like many of the Civil War in the set given
by the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the
United States, look back to retrace and
understand the past. These maps can remind us
that even sterile-looking maps can carry with
them a history of violence that demands a careful
consideration of what made the Map Collection
The Massachusetts 34th spent most of 1863-64 in
the Shenandoah Valley around Martinsburg—a
city that changed hands 37 times during the
course of the war. The following map was drawn
by Capt. C.L. Chandler of Brookline. The clear
depiction of the military aspects of the city would
have been of great use to his commanding
officer, Lt. Col. George D. Wells. Wells was killed
in October 1864. Many of his papers, including
this map were given to MOLLUS, and eventually
made their way to Harvard.
93. C.L. Chandler, "Plan of the Vicinity of Martinsburg, Virginia/' 1864. Gift of the Military Order of
the Loyal Legion of the United States (M.O.L.L.U.S.), Massachusetts Commandery.
Verso: "This map was drawn by that noble officer Capt. C.L. Chandler and was much prized by our late Col.
Geo. D. Wells, Chas. H. Howland, 1st Lt. & B. Gen., 34th Mass. Inf."
94. United States Army of the Cumberland, "Part of Cobb County, Georgia from the Original Land
Map," 1864. Gift of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States (M.O.L.L.U.S.),
MOLLUS was formed after the assassination of
Abraham Lincoln by three Union officers who
had served in the honor guard for Lincoln's
funeral train. In the early twentieth century, a
fire damaged the archives of the Massachusetts
Commandery. Items were given to Harvard for
safekeeping and scattered among many libraries,
including the Map Collection.
The loan was formalized as a donation in the
early 2000s. Included in that donation was this
map of Cobb County in Georgia, printed in the
weeks before the fall of Atlanta. Individual
squares in the blank grid were to be filled in by
surveyors in the held and the complete map
would be assembled at headquarters.
Although many maps in the MOLLUS archive
were created during the war, most were drawn
afterwards. With them, MOLLUS members tried
to document the war, tell the official story of
battles, and perhaps cement their commanders'
This map of the battles of Fisher's Hill and
Cedar Creek is one made after the war.
Ordered by General Phillip Sheridan, the map
tells the story of two Union victories in
Sheridan's Shenandoah Campaign. Six
Massachusetts regiments participated in these
two battles, and many of their officers would
have become members of MOLLUS. It isn't
surprising that veterans of the battles would
acquire and retain a copy of a map such as this.
98. G.L. Gillespie, Bvt. Lt. Col. "Battle Fields of Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek, Virginia," 1873.
Gift of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States (M.O.L.L.U.S.),
Harvard history professor Robert Howard Lord
('06, PhD HO) headed the Poland section of the
American Inquiry at the Paris Peace Conference.
As an expert in the history of Slavic Europe, Lord
argued vociferously, and somewhat successful¬
ly, for the enlargement of Poland. His obituary
in the New York Times stated "The reconstructed
Poland probably owed more to him than to any
other American aside from President Wilson."
For his efforts at the Peace Conference, Lord was
awarded an honorary doctorate from the
University of Lemberg (L'viv).
This map shows the ethnic makeup of Russian
areas of Poland based on the 1897 Russian
census. In this part of Poland, the Wilsonian
philosophy of self-determination was most
difficult to apply, as Russian, Polish, Ukrainian
and Lithuanian claims "all came into collision."
95. "Racial Map of Russian Poland," 1919. From the Robert H. Lord Collection.
During his time at Harvard, Robert Lord studied
under Professor Archibald Cary Coolidge, also
featured in this exhibition as a benefactor of the
Map Collection. His respect for his professor
and mentor led him to dedicate the collection of
essays he co-authored with Charles H. Haskins,
Some Problems of the Peace Conference, to Coolidge.
Coolidge's own commitment to Harvard's library
may have inspired Lord to leave his maps related
to the Paris Peace Conference here when Lord left
Harvard to study at St. John's Catholic Seminary
in nearby Brighton. Lord relied heavily on maps
like this one to make his argument that the
restoration of Poland "stood for the triumphant
righting of the greatest political wrong that
Europe had ever witnessed."
97. US Navy Intelligence Section, "Beach Diagram: Southwestern Beaches, Iwo Jima," 1944.
Gift of Charles Leo Grace, 1946.
donated only single maps. A Storekeeper Second
Class, Charles Grace served on the USS LSM
(Landing Ship Medium) 46 during World War II.
On this ship, Grace took part in the Battle of Iwo
Jima, best known as the site of the famous flag
raising, between 19 February and 8 March 1945 in
the Pacific Theater.
Grace and the LSM 46 participated for the
duration of the battle on the southeastern
beaches. On these beaches—code-named Green,
Red, Yellow, and Blue—the US forces pursued
the major amphibious assault on the island.
RAF ATTACKS ON GERMANY
This map was published at the beginning of the
Blitz, which started September 7,1940. While
the map shows a concerted bombing campaign
over Germany, it does not reflect the inaccuracy
of the British bombers, especially at night. This
inaccuracy led to civilian deaths and terror in
small towns and villages. This death and terror
were echoed and escalated during the months of
the Blitz in England, when the R.A.F. assumed a
more defensive posture.
War generates a plethora of maps for battle,
planning, and propaganda. We don't know
which curator acquired or which alumnus
donated this particular item, but it is
representative of the thousands of maps and
cultural artifacts that have come to the Map
Collection during wars.
99. H.M. Stationary Office, "Britain's Air Offensive: R.A.F. Attacks on Germany," September 27,1940.
Data and GIS
With the emergence of geographic information
systems (GIS) and computer cartography in the
early 1990s, students and faculty could customize
maps to their individual teaching and research
interests. To support the rapidly growing
interest digital mapping, the Harvard Map
Collection began actively collecting digital
datasets that describe the physical and cultural
world. The collection focused initially on local
(Cambridge, Boston and other municipalities),
state, and national data before expanding to
international data. Because most datasets were
too large to distribute over the early Internet, the
Map Collection acquired hundreds of CDs and
DVDs to be used in the Map Collection's reading
Since the mid-2000s, the Map Collection has
focused on two ways of supporting of digital
cartography: 1) the creation of the Harvard
Geospatial Library, a portal designed to help
people search, discover, and access the Map
Collection's spatial datasets and 2) the purchase
of data based on the needs of the Harvard
research community. This geographically
targeted collecting expanded our data holdings
for India and China, in particular, as well as parts
of Africa and South America.
30. Henry Haestens, "Hierosolima sancta Dei-Civitas," 1598. Ebeling Map Collection.
Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818.
£ £ £
Index of Images
Exhibition — Page
1 - 33
35 - 11
36 - 46
3 - 35
10 - 39
11 - 40
12 - 40
13 - 62
14 - 62
15 - 63
19 - 83
20 - 83
21 - 83
22 - 101
23 - 41
24 - 43
25 - 43
26 - 44
27 - 45
28 - 45
29 - 72
30 - 121
31 - 34
32 - 15
33 - 88
37 - 47
38 - 47
39 - 48
40 - 49
41 - 49
42 - 50
43 - 51
45 - 52
46 - 53
47 - 53
48 - 77
49 - 74
50 - 54
51 - 55
52 - 98
53 - 82
54 - 71
55 - 73
56 - 73
57 - 90
58 - 56
59 - 57
60 - 58
61 - 59
62 - 59
63 - 60
64 - 61
65 - 65
66 - 66
67 - 67
68 - 68
69 - 69
70 - 70
71 - 78
72 - 7f
73 - 80
74 - 81
76 - 84
77 - 85
78 - 86
79 - 89
81 - 92
82 - 93
83 - 94
84 - 95
85 - 100
86 - 103
87 - 104
88 - 105
89 - 106
90 - 107
91 - 108
92 - 109
93 - 112
94 - 113
95 - 115
96 - 116
97 - 117
98 - 114
99 - 119
100 - 99
101 - 5